- Skin and subcutaneous tissue
- Vertebral column
- Spinal cord
- Various segmental nerves and vessels
- Protecting spinal cord
- Support body weight superior to the level of pelvis.
- A partly rigid and flexible axis for body
- Helps maintain posture and locomotion
7 are cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacral vertebrae that fuse to form the sacrum and 4 coccygeal vertebrae that fuse to form the coccyx.
- Vertebral body
- Vertebral arch
- 7 processes
- Vertebral Notches
- Larger vertebral foramina.
- Uncus: the elevated superiolateral margin of the body
- horizontal Articular facets
- C3-C6 have short spinous processes which are bifid.
- C7 has a long spinous process (vertebrae prominens)
- Median sacral crest: fused spinous processes.
- Intermediate sacral crest: fused articular processes.
- Lateral sacral crest: fused transverse processes.
- Gluteus maximus (part of it)
- Coccygeus Muscle
- Anococcygeal ligament (median fibrous band of pubococcygeal muscles)